Theacrine’s (as TeaCrine®) multi-faceted effects come from the reactions between two neural pathways: dopaminergic and adenosinergic pathways.
By affecting these major pathways and supporting other neurotransmitters, Theacrine’s (as TeaCrine®) increases energy without irritability and enables competitive athletes, active individuals and driven professionals to enhance their physical and mental performance.
As documented in an open-source scientific publication on theacrine, concentrated theacrine doses activate dopaminergic receptors D1 and D2, supporting dopaminergic signaling.
In addition to boosting dopaminergic levels, Theacrine (asTeaCrine®) its effects on signaling, it’s also thought to inhibit adenosinergic activity. Adenosine plays an important role in biochemical processes that promote fatigue sedation and relaxation. By inhibiting the activity of the A1 and A2a receptors, Theacrine (as TeaCrine®) may help decrease perceived feelings of fatigue.
L-Theanine (r-glutamylethylamide) is a non-dietary amino acid found in green tea (camellia sinensis), and the mushroom Xerocomus badius.
L-Theanine is one of the very few nootropics known to modulate brain waves. It affects alpha brain waves which are associated with relaxation. Providing an alert calmness, L-Theanine helps in promoting super-learning, flow states and joy. L-Theanine boosts the neurotransmitters serotonin and GABA in your brain. As well as increasing Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) and Nerve Growth Factor (NGF).
Brain Waves. L-Theanine boosts alpha brain waves (8-12Hz) promoting alert relaxation. And theta brain waves associated with creativity and relief from trauma.
Neurotransmitters. L-Theanine increases GABA, serotonin and dopaminergic levels in your brain. Producing an energizing and calming effect. And improving cognition and memory.
Neuroprotection. L-Theanine is an antagonist of NMDA receptors and can inhibit synaptic release of glutamate. Protecting your brain from over-stimulation caused by glutamate, and possible glutamate toxicity.
Bacopa Monnieri (Brahmi) is a perennia, aquatic herb. Originally from the wetlands of India, and other southeastern Asian countries.
Bacopa Monnieri is an adaptogen. It helps prevent the chemical and physical effects of stress. Instead of just suppressing them like many modern antidepressants.
Neurotransmitters. Bacopa affects brain levels of acetylcholine which is important for memory and cognition.
Cognition. Bacopa has antioxidant effects which enhances cognitive function. Bacopa extract helps prevent arterial plaque that can lead to heart attack, stroke and other neurodegenerative diseases.
Anxiety and stress. Bacopa has a significant anxiolytic (anti-anxiety) effect. It appears to modulate brain levels of the neurotransmitter serotonin. This has an effect on mood regulation.
Memory. Bacopa’s two active components are bacosides A and B. They improve the signaling of electrical impulses between neurons in your brain. Bacosides also help rebuild damaged neurons.
Bacopa Monnieri helps you learn and remember things more easily. In one study, researchers gave 54 volunteers in Portland, Oregon 300 mg of B. Monnieri per day for 12 weeks. After the 12-week study, the people taking Bacopa had: Better word recall Better attention Better memory scores A greater ability to focus while learningLess anxiety and lower heart rates.
Alpha-GPC (Alpha-glycerophosphocholine) is a compound made up of choline and glycerophosphate with neuroprotective activity. Alpha-GPC prevents cognitive decline, and increases attention and memory.
Alpha GPC is more bioavailable than other sources of choline for brain benefits. Unlike choline citrate or choline bitartrate, it easily crosses the blood-brain barrier. This makes Alpha GPC a preferred choline source with experienced nootropic users.
Alpha GPC is a precursor to the essential neurotransmitter acetylcholine.
Brain Energy. Alpha GPC improves mood, and boosts mental energy. The extra choline can increase alertness and clarity of thought.
Neurotransmitters. Alpha GPC is prized for its ability to improve memory. Its high bioavailability makes it a great source of choline for producing the neurotransmitter acetylcholine.
Brain Optimization. Alpha GPC boosts the development of new brain cells. And enhances your brain’s ability to repair damaged
Uridine Monophosphate (UMP or 5′-uridylic acid) is a pyrimidine nucleoside found in all living organisms ranging from humans to bacteria.
Our bodies create some uridine. The problem is most of the uridine we get from food never makes it from our digestive system to our brain. So we need to supplement with uridine monophosphate (UMP) to experience the benefits of uridine.
Uridine helps the growth of new synapses in your brain, increases signaling between neurons, and assists in the formation of acetylcholine (ACh).
Memory is largely dependent on neuroplasticity which is associated with the ability to learn and form memories. This process of turning experiences into memories relies on the growth of new neurons (neurogenesis), new synapses (synaptogenesis), dendrite formation, and network reorganization.
Uridine also helps increase synapse formation (synaptogenesis) by enhancing neurite growth. Uridine signals this outgrowth by activating the P2Y2 receptor which controls neuron differentiation and synaptic protein synthesis.
UMP elevates mood and relieves depression. Feelings of 'well-being’ are enhanced. And verbal fluidity, memory and focus are all noticed at low doses.
Caffeine consumption provides a boost in mental alertness, concentration, better athletic performance, and less physical and mental fatigue.
Caffeine is an adenosine antagonist which influences acetylcholine, epinephrine (adrenaline), serotonin and boosts the use of dopaminergic pathways. Providing the stimulant effect experienced when consuming caffeine.
Caffeine improves mood within an hour of consumption. Because it increases the density of GABA receptors, potentiates dopaminergic pathways, and causes some serotonin receptors to be more responsive.
Caffeine provides a protective effect by boosting gene expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Studies show chronic caffeine consumption may protect against developing neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer’s.
Vitamin B12 is essential for the synthesis of DNA, RNA and neurotransmitters, the maintenance of myelin sheaths protecting neurons, and red blood cell formation.
Cerebral Circulation: Vitamin B12 is needed to regulate homocysteine. High homocysteine levels are linked to inflammation that can lead to blood vessel damage. And possible plaque build up leading to heart attack or stroke.
Neurotransmitters: Vitamin B12 is a cofactor in the synthesis of neurotransmitters including GABA and serotonin, affecting alertness, cognition, memory and mood.
Mood: Vitamin B12 helps increase neurotransmitter levels, decreasing anxiety, depression, fatigue and pain.
Vitamin B-6 is an essential vitamin and the precursor of Coenzyme A (CoA), a molecule that is ubiquitous in the human body and that participates in the key metabolic pathways for cellular energy generation. CoA is also used in the synthesis of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine and is therefore essential for proper nervous system function.
Brain Optimization: Pantothenic acid is at the heart of the KREBs cycle and electron transport chain which helps convert nutrients from food into energy which is used to make adenosine triphosphate (ATP). ATP is the fuel source within each of your cells. More energy increases mental clarity, alertness, memory and mood.
Neurotransmitters: Pantothenic acid as part of Coenzyme-A (CoA) is involved in the synthesis of the neurotransmitters acetylcholine, epinephrine, and serotonin. Affecting alertness, cognition, memory and mood.
Mood: Pantothenic acid is often referred to as the “anti-stress vitamin”. Your adrenal glands use CoA (made partly from pantothenic acid) along with cholesterol and Vitamin C to manufacture cortisol and epinephrine. Vitamin B5 has a reputation for reducing stress, anxiety and depression.
Vitamin B3 (Niacin, nicotinic acid, 3-pyridine-carboxylic acid) is one of eight B-Vitamins. Niacin is a precursor to the coenzymes nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD), and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP).
NAD also converts to NADH which is the primary carrier of electrons in the transfer of food from your diet into energy. This energy is stored as adenosine triphosphate (ATP).
Studies have shown that supplementing with niacin improves cognitive function, enhances cellular energy, boosts cerebral circulation, increases endurance, switches ‘off’ aging genes, and extends life span.
Protect brain cells. Niacin as a precursor to NAD and NADH repairs cell and DNA damage. And stimulates your immune system. Niacin boosts the production of Nitric Oxide (NO) which relaxes blood vessels in your brain increasing cerebral blood flow. And niacin acts as an antioxidant helping to eliminate free radicals that can damage brain cells.
Brain energy. As a precursor to NADH, niacin provides electrons for ATP synthesis that fuels mitochondria in brain cells. Low levels of niacin result in brain fog, slow mental processing, and cognitive decline.
Neurotransmitters. Niacin affects cognitive function by stimulating the production of dopaminergic pathways and serotonin. These neurotransmitters are involved in memory, learning, cognition, recall and mood.
Huperzine-A (Hup-A) is a water-soluble alkaloid nootropic derived from Chinese Club Moss (Huperzia serrata). This plant is native to southeast Asia. And has been used in traditional medicine for millennia to treat skin conditions, muscle problems and to boost blood circulation.
Huperzine-A is a reversible acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitor. Which means it prevents the breakdown down of acetylcholine (ACh). Boosting short-term memory and long-term brain health.
Huperzine-A also seems to be a NMDA receptor antagonist. Which is beneficial in that it prevents an excess of glutamate from damaging brain cells.
Neurotransmitters: Huperzine-A prevents the enzyme AChE from breaking down acetylcholine. Improving cognition and memory.
Brain Energy: Huperzine-A supports brain cell mitochondria. The primary energy sources fueling brain cells and brain cell function.
Neuroprotectant: Huperzine-A works as an antioxidant and boosts the activity of other brain antioxidants. Preventing free radical damage in brain cells. And boosting brain cell longevity.
Huperzine-A boosts nerve growth factor (NGF) in the brain. NGF is critical in brain cell development, maintenance and repair. Declines in NGF-levels in the brain are associated with Alzheimer’s and other neurodegenerative diseases. Studies show Hup-A not only prevents this drop in NGF from happening. It actually helps boost the production of NGF.
Tyrosine can be a highly effective nootropic for boosting cognitive function. And is particularly helpful in maintaining cognitive performance when you’re under practically any kind of stress. L-Tyrosine also stimulates the production of thyroid hormones T3 (triiodothyronine) and T4 (thyroxine) which are crucial in maintaining both overall physical and cognitive health.
L-Tyrosine enhances working memory and executive function in the prefrontal cortex. It helps with creative flow states, is fuel for inspiration, cognitive flexibility, and the kind of “convergent thinking” you do in multiple choice exams. L-Tyrosine can boost libido, memory, focus, concentration, mood, offers anti-depressant effects, and improves executive function in those with ADHD.
Cognitive Stress. Acute stress is defined as short-term stressors that can affect cognition. Examples are extreme heat or cold, extreme sports, car accidents, relationship problems, intense movies, business deals gone awry, exams and war zones. L-Tyrosine produces the catecholamine-triad of neurotransmitters. Sleep deprivation and extreme stressors like heat and cold can deplete catecholamine levels, L-Tyrosine restores them to preserve optimal cognition.
Neurotransmitters. L-Tyrosine is a required precursor for neurotransmitters. As your dopamine levels increase, you’re better able to concentrate, organize your thoughts, and stay productive.
Many neurohackers report a lift in mood, better focus, concentration, increased energy, and an overall sense of well-being. L-Tyrosine can help readjust your motivation levels. It can help lower anxiety levels, especially social anxiety.
Sceletium tortuosum, popularly known as kanna, is a South African plant known for its medicinal properties. Kanna has been used by the native inhabitants of the region since ancient times as a brain tonic and pain reliever. Kanna has multiple nootropic properties including:
Anxiolytic activity. Kanna has been demonstrated to reduce anxiety and stress in both animals and humans.
Antidepressant activity. Kanna has shown to help with depression.
Cognitive performance. Kanna may be capable of improving cognition in healthy adults.
Neuroprotection. Kanna may protect neurons from degeneration such as that seen in Alzheimer’s.
Similar to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) that are widely used as antidepressants and anxiolytics, kanna has been demonstrated to inhibit the activity of the serotonin (5-HT) transporter. This transporter protein moves serotonin from the synapse into neurons.
Phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) is an enzyme that breaks down cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), a molecule involved in a wide range of processes including brain function. Similar to other PDE4 inhibitors, Kanna seems to reduce the activity of this enzyme, an effect that can improve overall cognition and aid with a wide variety of neurological disorders ranging from depression to Alzheimer’s.
Current clinical trial findings indicate that kanna can improve overall cognitive function and mood, and reduce anxiety.
Kanna extract (25 mg) appears to improve cognition in older adults
This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study examined the use of kanna extract (Zembrin) in 21 older adults (average age of 55). They were given either placebo or Zembrin (25 mg) daily for 3 weeks and later switched groups after a washout period. Kanna extract was found to improve mood and several measures of mental ability, namely cognitive flexibility and executive function.
The researchers concluded that “The promising cognitive enhancing effects of Zembrin likely implicate the PDE-4-cAMP-CREB cascade, a novel drug target in the potential treatment of early Alzheimer’s dementia.”
Dicaffeine malate (also known as Infinergy) is referred to as the “next generation” form of caffeine which combines the best aspects of caffeine and blends it with the endurance-enhancing properties of malic acid.
Dicaffeine malate is essentially a buffered form of caffeine that produces the same stimulatory effects but with a few additional benefits including sustained energy, better absorption and reduced chance of gastro issues. Most often regular forms of caffeine generate a huge surge of energy that leads to jitters, and eventually, a huge crash. The combination of malate and caffeine offers a smooth uptick in energy which lasts a few hours longer than traditional caffeine and has a smooth ride down. Dicaffeine malate is incredibly effective, but when used in tandem with caffeine anhydrous, the two form an ideal punch of quick hitting energy that will last long after you’ve finished your last set for the day.
Di-caffiene malate starts working as soon as it enters the bloodstream, which is typically 15 – 30 minutes after consumption. Users can expect to experience an increase in mental alertness, concentration, mental focus & physical energy within this timeframe. Consistent use in conjunction with a sensible diet and workout regime will have users experiencing the full performance enhancing effects within the first 2 weeks of use.